Road Marking & Floor Coating
Today, a variety of polymers are manufactured and used for different coating applications. In the changing scenario of the coatings world, newer and versatile coatings are being used for decoration as well as protection applications. The need and awareness of floor coatings and heavy duty industrial coatings are increasing. Depending on the area of applications, substrates, surfaces, properties expectations, newer floor coatings have been introduced and commercially used
Underground car parking of housing complexes
- Ground plus five floors of high-rise building car/parking
- Deck and ramp in car parking areas
- Factories and Industrial workshops
- Pharmaceutical Industries
- Car showrooms, service centres, Garage areas
- Swimming Pool areas
- Hospitals, massage parlours, Hotels
- Shopping complexes, super malls, walking areas
- Cold storages, warehouses, storerooms, playgrounds etc
In the olden days, flooring material was mainly confined to natural wood, and then this wooden flooring was coated and protected by using French polish or shellac polish. However, the use was very limited, since regular maintenance was required, limited water resistance and abrasion resistance. However today, most of the floors are made up of cementitious surfaces, concrete structure. The correctly engineered and constructed concrete is one of the strongest construction materials, with long-lasting properties. However, even properly cured concrete also cannot withstand atmosphere exposure and corrosive environment, in the long run. Therefore need arose for the development of protective floor coatings. Variety of polymers introduced for different substrates surfaces mainly for getting long-term advantages Therefore need arose for the development of protective floor coatings. Variety of polymers introduced for different substrates surfaces mainly for getting long-term advantages
- Floor coating for protection and decoration
- For easier installation and maintenance
- The continuous membrane with non-permeability of water and moisture, with breathable and non-breathable properties
- Very high order of adhesion, pull off strength
- Outstanding impact and abrasion resistance
- Excellent contraction and expansion properties, with better tensile strength, crack-bridging properties and high order of elongation
- Superior compressive strength, shore A hardness
- Hygienic, dust free, tough surface
- Chemical resistance- Acid, Alkali, Solvent resistance
- Antiskid properties, fire resistance properties
- Carbon dioxide diffusion resistance, to protect cementitious surface and the concrete structure – rebars
- Chloride ion reduction and moisture vapour permeable coating to stop or prevent concrete floor deterioration
- Impermeable to liquid penetration
During formation of floorings Laitance and Efflorescence formation, Dampness Alkalinity, Porosity, visible cracks, microporosity.
Mechanical damage Abrasion, Friction, Impact, load bearing, scratches due to the machine, man movements.
Chemical damage Oils, Fats, grease, detergent cleaning, high water jet cleaning, chloride ion attacks, petrol and fuel.
Thermal shock: Vibration, contraction expansion movement, water Freezing, earth movements, storms.
Biodegradation Formation of bacteria, Algae, Fungi, Moulds. Due to coastal areas, the damp surface concrete floor gets biodegraded.
Weather climatic conditions Temperature, salt, Humidity, Rainwater,UV exposure, Atmospheric charges.
The application of Epoxy flooring material is very difficult and skilled job, the applicators required complete knowledge and experience for doing quality
job, Mainly there are three distinct categories for epoxy flooring material applications.
- Trowelled floorings
- Self leveling floorings
- Special effects flooring
The types of resins , hardness ,
fillers & aggregate used and the method of application will change, depending on the quality requirements ,
end application requirement.
These are heavily filled compositions, which can be applied by trowel to a thickness of about 5-6 mm. They provide a combination of high mechanical strength, chemical resistance and thus suitable for heavy duty service e.g. in areas subjected to hard wear by vehicles, fork-lift trucks, drums etc. Where product spillage is also problem. The choice and quantity of fillers used is very important to formulate goods quality floor. The addition of fillers provides the mechanical strength in the flooring. The epoxy resin binder, serves to bond these filler particles together and provides chemical resistance. It is essential, that all the filler particles are wetted by the binder resin, leaving no voids or porous surface. These requirements are achieved by using filters with the suitable particle size grading and resin of appropriate viscosity and setting time. The performance of the floor is also influenced by the filler: binder ratio and the type of filler, since the quality of filler vary in terms of hardness, abrasion resistance etc. As also the application properties of the flooring, its trowellability
, are dependent on the quality of fillers as well as on the number of fillers. These fillers should be free from water content, moisture content for better performance. Since, the cost of the floor is very important and dependent on the quality, quantity and particle size, the widely used filler for this purpose is Silica Sand with different particle size grading. The filler: binder ratio vary from the flooring properties expectations, which may be in the range of 5 : 1 to 6 : 1 , affecting the mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength, elongation and impact resistance. However, chemical resistance properties only can be achieved by decreasing the filler.
The proper mixing of the binder and filler is essential to achieve good results. The resin binder and the curing agent, are supplied in separate packs, to be weighted in appropriate proportion, as recommended by the manufacturer. They are thoroughly mixed together and then this binder is mixed with the filler. Rotating drum mixers with fixed blades have been mixing, in specified working time, to be laid down on the floor.
Application of trowelling compound The application of a trowelling floor compound to a suitably prepared substrate involves number of stages,
- Primer coat – Resin binder plus curing agent
- Trowelling mix – Resin binder plus curing agent plus filler
- Sealer coat or Topcoat – Resin binder plus curing agent
The trowlled floors should be opened for use , only after seven days , after achieving optimum properties. Since during this period cross linking mechanism is nearby completed.
The epoxy resins, self –levelling composition are recommended in the areas which are not subjected to a severe degree of mechanical wear. They can be formulated to provide a high level of chemical resistance; they can be also used for highly decorative appearance. Self-levelling flooring are relatively lightly filled and normally applied in film thickness of about 2 mm.
A special effect can be obtained by making some changes in the self-levelling flooring compounds. The type of flooring can be classified in the following ways
Decorative effects By selecting specific pigments, or transparent colours, attractive floorings can be produced. Also coloured embedded designs can be obtained by spreading or sprinkling coloured fillers of same particle size or different particle sizes.
Non-slip Anti skid surface can be obtained by application of very very fine fillers on to the surface, before it has gelled. This effect can be obtained by manual spreading or by using spray guns.
Matt finish effect The gloss of a self-levelling flooring depend on the filler: binder ratio. The higher the filler content less will be the gloss, however , to get such effect mattening fillers are used in practice. Various newer floorings now available based on epoxy and polyurethanes, with specific functional modifications such as , conductive coatings, reflective floor coatings. Hygienic floor coatings, high performance Solvent free . Polyurethane based ramp, parking area coating. Acrylic coatings also contribute to some extent as floor coatings in specific areas.